1. Application of lanthanum bromide
So far, scintillation crystals have been widely used in many fields, such as nuclear physics, high energy physics, astrophysics, geological exploration, petroleum logging, nuclear medical imaging, and industrial nondestructive examination. In general, the main indicators to measure the scintillation crystals are density, optical yield, attenuation time, energy resolution and other aspects. Different fields have different requirements on the performance of scintillation crystals, and a great variety of scintillator materials are generated accordingly.
A recently discovered set of materials could enable rapid battery charging, improve the likelihood of a smartphone fully charging in minutes, and accelerate adoption of major clean technologies such as electric cars and solar power.Continue Reading →
Platinum rhodium thermocouple is also called high temperature thermocouple, precious metals platinum rhodium have single platinum rhodium (10 - platinum rhodium platinum rhodium) and double platinum rhodium (30 - platinum rhodium platinum rhodium 6), as temperature measurement sensor, usually with temperature transmitter, controller and display instrument, such as process control system, to directly measure or control in the production of a variety of fluid over a range of 0-1700 ℃, steam and gas medium and solid surface temperature.Continue Reading →
Rising commodity prices may have renewed the market's enthusiasm for Africa's resources, but with the mining industry in Cape Town, coal and iron ore markets are unlikely to be the focus.
The boom in electric vehicles and the changing industrial demands that have accompanied them have made previously thin metals (from cobalt lithium to praseodymium rare earths) a new hot spot for African mining.
Pt-Rh thermocouple has the highest accuracy, best stability, wide temperature range, long service life and high temperature limit in thermocouple series. Suitable for oxidizing and inert atmospheres or for short-term use in a vacuum, but not for reducing atmospheres or atmospheres containing metallic or non-metallic vapors. B type thermocouple is an obvious advantage don't need a compensation for the compensation conductor, because in the range of 0 ~ 50 ℃ and internal potential less than 3 mu V.Continue Reading →
It is mainly divided into metal and non-metal compound and non-metal intercompound. The former include refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, vanadium, chromium, titanium and zirconium, as well as rare earth metals such as boride, carbide, nitride, silicified, phosphide and sulfide. The latter such as boron carbide, silicon carbide, boron nitride, silicon nitride, boron phosphide, silicon phosphide etc.Continue Reading →
Superconductivity is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Over the past century of research on superconductivity, new superconducting material systems have emerged one after another, and the strange behaviors of superconductivity have been discovered constantly. At the same time, superconducting materials have important application value in energy, medical treatment, communication and other fields. In recent years, with the discovery of high temperature superconductivity of single-layer fese-srtio3 system, interface superconductivity and superconductor-base interaction become a new hot spot in the study of superconductivity. However, the preparation of single-layer superconductors requires extremely stringent conditions, including an ultra-high vacuum environment of 10-10 Torr, expensive molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) equipment, and specific monocrystalline substrates.Continue Reading →
An alloy whose substrate is iridium containing other elements. It is a kind of precious metal material with special purpose. Iridium alloy has high melting point, high chemical stability and good thermal strength. But most iridium alloys are brittle and difficult to process, limiting their use. Common iridium alloys include ir-40rh, ir-70rh, ir-20ru and ir-10ru. Common iridium alloys include ir-40rh, ir-70rh, ir-20ru and ir-10ru. Iridium alloy is mainly used as high temperature oxidation resistance thermocouple and electrical contact materials, the use of Ir - Rh in thermocouple temperature can be as high as above 2000 ℃. Iridium alloy can be used to improve the processing performance of iridium with a small amount of tungsten or hafnium, and the addition of trace amounts of aluminum, iron, thorium and so on to improve the impact toughness. As a result, iridium alloy has high melting point and high temperature strength, good thermal shock resistance, and is compatible with graphite and PuO2 at high temperature. It is selected as the nuclear fuel container material for aerospace and medical applications.Continue Reading →
In the forging process, the induction furnace argon is used for shielding smelting, the ingot must be heated and then processed for cold processing, and the fine wire of 0.008mmP-tIr25 alloy is drawn. It is difficult to smelt and process 60% iridium alloy by electric arc furnace.Continue Reading →
Titanium alloy infantry fighting vehicles, titanium alloy is A synonym for high-end and expensive metal in people's impression, especially military fans know that the former Soviet union built titanium alloy submarine a-class attack nuclear submarine, which is more valuable than gold. How can our army equip such expensive equipment?Continue Reading →
The main process of tantalum smelting is to decompose concentrate, purify and separate tantalum and niobium to make the pure compounds of tantalum and niobium, and finally make the metal.
Hydrofluoric acid decomposition, sodium hydroxide melting and chlorination can be used to decompose the ore. The separation of tantalum and niobium can be achieved by solvent extraction (common extractant is methyl isobutyl copper (MIBK), tributyl phosphate (TBP), sec-octanol and acetamide), step crystallization and ion exchange.
Metallic zirconium, also known as sponge zirconium, is a silver-gray metal with a steel-like appearance and luster. Melting point 1852 secondary point, secondary point, boiling point 4377 density 6.49. Zirconium absorbs hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen easily. Zirconium's affinity for oxygen is very strong, zirconium oxygen dissolved in 1000 ℃ can make its volume increased significantly. Zirconium is relatively stable in air. The powdered zirconium is easy to burn, and the fine zirconium filament can be ignited by a match. At high temperature, it can be directly combined with dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen.Continue Reading →
Driven by user demand for more comfort, safety and functions, the automobile industry has become a rapidly developing market area. Various electronic systems are equipped into modern cars, many of which directly affect the reliability of the car and the safety of the passengers. Conversely, this means that the electronic components used in critical electronic systems must be very reliable. Capacitors are widely used in many automotive electronic systems, and their quality, stability and reliability must be strictly controlled by automakers. Tantalum capacitors and niobium oxide capacitors can improve the performance of automotive systems.Continue Reading →
As a refractory metal, niobium has been used in space field. Niobium tungsten alloy has high strength at high temperature and good plasticity at room temperature. It can be made into various processing materials and parts by conventional forming processing technology, which can be used for space shuttle skin, nuclear reactor engineering, jet engine parts, space power generation system thermal radiation screen and catheter, etc. China's chang 'e-3 related facilities part of the use of niobium tungsten alloy.Continue Reading →
In order to better explain the mechanism of superconductivity enhancement of heavy stacking tantalum disulfide thin films, the research team used density functional theory to simulate and analyze the electronic structure of the two materials. The results show that the electron delocalization at the interface is enhanced due to the distortion between layers, which leads to the increase of electron density near Fermi surface and the enhancement of superconductivity. Tantalum disulfide film is higher in temperature.Continue Reading →
In the early days of the struggle for supremacy between the United States and the Soviet union, the Soviet union developed a large number of submarines, especially some later nuclear submarines, in order to cope with the maritime threat posed by the aircraft carrier battle group of the United States. The operational performance was excellent, which greatly enhanced the strategic deterrence capability of the Soviet union underwater. And one of the characteristics of Soviet nuclear submarines was that they liked to use titanium alloy to make pressure-resistant shells. So why? What's the advantage of titanium alloy? In fact, the reason is very simple, since the submarine's compression shell, of course, is to resist pressure.Continue Reading →
Nickel base superalloy. The main alloy elements are chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, cobalt, aluminum, titanium, boron, zirconium, etc. Among them, chromium ACTS as antioxidant and corrosion resistance, while other elements act as reinforcement. In 650 ~ 1000 ℃ high temperature had a higher strength and oxidation resistance, gas corrosion resistance, is the most widely used in high temperature alloy, high temperature strength of the highest kind of alloy. It is used to manufacture high-temperature components on aero engine blades and rocket engines, nuclear reactors and energy conversion equipment.Continue Reading →
Sponge zirconium, also known as metallic zirconium, is a silver-gray metal with a steel-like appearance and luster, used in aerospace, military industry, nuclear reaction, etc.Continue Reading →
Niobium plays a role of solid solution strengthening and carbide precipitation strengthening in high temperature alloy to improve yield strength and surface stability of high temperature alloy. The weight of niobium is one of the lighter metals in refractory metals and one of the factors of high temperature alloy. Niobium nickel alloy, as an additive of nickel base superalloy, is mainly used to produce 718 alloy. Niobium can be added into permanent magnetic alloy to improve its coercivity.Continue Reading →
Tantalum alloy based on tantalum adds other elements to the alloy. Tantalum anode oxide film is very stable, corrosion resistant, dielectric properties excellent, suitable for making electrolytic capacitor. Tantalum is highly resistant to chemical corrosion. Except for hydrogen fluoride, sulfur trioxide, hydrofluoric acid, hot concentrated sulfuric acid and alkali, tantalum can resist the corrosion of all organic and inorganic acids. Therefore, it can be used as corrosion resistant materials for chemical industry and medicine. Tantalum carbide is an important additive in the manufacture of cemented carbide. Tantalum is also used in some tubes. In 1958, ta-10w alloy was put into production.Continue Reading →
The raw materials of rhenium mainly come from the by-products of molybdenum smelting process. Generally, rhenium content in molybdenum concentrate is between 0.001% and 0.031%. But the rhenium content of molybdenum concentrate from porphyry copper mine can reach 0.16%. In addition, some copper, platinum metal ore, niobium mine, zinc blende smelting dust, slag, waste liquid processing low-grade molybdenum ore and rhenium waste materials such as platinum rhenium catalyst and rhenium waste alloy can also be used as raw materials for rhenium production.Continue Reading →
Niobium tungsten oxide can be used as the positive electrode of lithium ion battery, which makes the lithium ion battery have higher power and faster charging speed. The new batteries could be adapted to more new devices, such as electric vehicles and grid-level storage for renewable energy. The battery has three parts: the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte connecting the poles. When a lithium-ion battery discharges, the ions move from the cathode to the anode, and when it is charged, from the anode to the cathode. The faster the lithium ions in the battery move, the faster the battery charges, and the higher the power in the process.Continue Reading →
Niobium is an important industrial raw material with good corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, deformation resistance and thermoelectric conductivity. It is widely used in steel industry, aerospace industry, military industry and nuclear industry. Eighty percent of the region's iron ore products are used in the iron and steel industry, and over 90 percent of the industrial superconducting materials are made of niobium and tantalum alloy conductors, which is an important strategic resource. This paper introduces the development history, production and consumption situation and market characteristics of global niobium mine application, summarizes and analyzes the current investment situation of world resources, and emphatically introduces the main global niobium mineral resources in the exploration and development stage.Continue Reading →
Modern aircraft such as spacecraft, artificial satellites and rockets, missiles, supersonic aircraft is towards high speed, high altitude, big thrust, long distance, high accuracy and safety in the direction of the development of zirconium and hafnium compounds (and) for some excellent performance, in addition to small nuclear structure and coating materials, also used in the Apollo spacecraft on the relevant parts. Hafnium can also be used as a small and energetic propellant for rockets.Continue Reading →
Tantalum excellent chemical properties, high corrosion resistance. In both cold and hot conditions, the hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and aqua regia "reaction. But tantalum corroded in hot concentrated sulfuric acid, and under 150 ℃, tantalum is not concentrated sulfuric acid corrosion, only in the higher temperature will have a reaction, 1 year, in the 175 degrees of sulfuric acid corrosion thickness is 0.0004 mm, the tantalum in 200 ℃ of sulfuric acid soaking for one year, the surface damage of only 0.006 mm. At 250 degrees, the corrosion rate increased, to corrode the thickness of 0.116 mm a year, at 300 degrees, the corrosion Speed is more faster, soak 1 year, the surface corrosion of 1.368 mm. In fuming sulfuric acid corrosion of SO3 (including 15%) than in the sulfuric acid is more serious, in the 130 - degree of the solution for 1 year, the thickness of surface corrosion is 15.6 mm. Tantalum will also be phosphoric acid corrosion at high temperature, but the reaction occurred in 150 degrees of above commonly, in 85% of the 250 degrees of phosphoric acid, soak 1 year, surface corrosion of 20 mm, in addition, tantalum can quickly dissolved in hydrofluoric acid and mixed acid of nitric acid, can be dissolved in hydrofluoric acid. But more fear of alkali tantalum, 40% in 110 - degree concentration of caustic soda solution , tantalum can be quickly dissolved, in the same concentration of potassium hydroxide solution, as long as 100 degrees can be quickly dissolved. In addition to the above, the general inorganic salt corrosion under 150 degrees generally cannot tantalum. Experiments show that tantalum at room temperature, the alkali solution, chlorine, bromine water, dilute sulphuric acid and many other drugs don't work, only under the effect of hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated sulfuric acid. The situation in the metal is relatively rare.Continue Reading →
A superconducting material is a material that exhibits properties of zero resistance and repulsion of magnetic field lines at low temperatures. 28 elements and thousands of alloys and compounds have been found to be superconductors. Niobium superconducting material.Continue Reading →
Zirconium is a rare metal. Its melting point (1852 + 2) ℃. It's a carbide forming element. Zirconium is a powerful deoxidization and denitrification element in the process of steelmaking. Zirconium can refine the austenite grains of steel, which can be combined with sulphur to form zirconium sulfide, thus preventing the hot brittleness of steel.Continue Reading →
It is conducted in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum degree of 1 x 10-2 ~ 1 x 10-3 Pa. A thick, full-sized workpiece with a protective coating or foreskin allows rapid heat treatment in the atmosphere. Zircaloy tube stick in the middle of the annealing temperature about 700 ℃, recrystallization began about 500 ℃, 600 ℃ when the grain coarsening obviously. Finished pipes of eliminating stress annealing at 450 ~ 450 ℃, finished pipes of recrystallization annealing at 530 ~ 530 ℃.Continue Reading →
The exploration types of rare metallic endogenetic and weathering crust deposits are divided according to the size, morphology and mineralization uniformity of the ore body:
First Ⅰ types: massive ore bodies (> 800 m long and wide or deep > 500 m), simple form, a layer, layer, slab, huge lenticular and vein, mineralization evenly to more evenly. There are alkali feldspar granite deposit, weathering crust deposit, baiyun obo nb and rare earth deposit.
The tantalum niobium industry production is given priority to with wet smelting smelting and method, the production of major products are tantalum acid potassium fluoride, tantalum oxide, oxidation, niobium, tantalum, niobium tantalum carbide, metallurgical grade niobium capacitor grade tantalum powder and tantalum materials, oxide of high purity product is mainly used for tantalum lithium crystal, carbide used for cemented carbide, potassium is a raw material for tantalum powder, tantalum and tantalum powder tantalum is a high volume of capacitor materials. At present, tantalum niobium domestic annual demand is in 800~1000 tons tantalum oxide (100% tantalum), national production capacity is about 140~150 tons. Most of the remaining raw materials are imported from Africa.Continue Reading →