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The research progress of tantalum and porous tantalum surface modification on tissue engineering and stomatology

Tantalum metal (Tantalum, Ta), excellent corrosion resistance, and has the characteristics of high melting point, strength, wear resistance, are widely used in refractory material, including aircraft, rockets, and need high strength parts industry [1]. In addition, the metal tantalum has good physical and mechanical properties, good biological compatibility, performance after titanium became a new type of biological materials, is widely used in dental implant implantation, treatment of femoral head necrosis, coronary stenting, artificial acetabulum prosthesis implantation, surgical sutures and other related medical field.

In recent years, with the deepening of the research on metal tantalum, it was found that porous tantalum with human cancellous bone approximate cellular stereo structure, with low elastic modulus and high friction properties, therefore, porous tantalum and is referred to as "tantalum bone" (Tantalumbone). This paper will introduce the research progress of structural mechanical properties, biological characteristics, surface modification techniques of tantalum and porous tantalum, and introduce the current domestic and foreign research status in the application of oral medicine.

The preparation technology of porous tantalum is relatively complex, the main methods include: vapor deposition method, organic foam impregnation method and laser rapid forming, powder sintering, etc., the above method was prepared by the pore diameter of porous tantalum um size of 300-300, compared with other metal material with porous structure with high porosity (66.7% 80%), the characteristics of the groups can accelerate the internal.cause pore, improve the porous tantalum internal nutrient exchange, making it have the potential to grow the higher organizations introversion. In addition, the porous tantalum has low elastic modulus, higher surface friction coefficient and excellent mechanical properties, its elastic modulus is 1.22 GPa, between cancellous bone (0.1 to 0.5 GPa) and compact bone (12-18 GPa) between, in the process of medical implanted in the bone tissue can avoid the stress shielding effect, is conducive to the normal conduction of biological stress. The higher surface friction coefficient can increase the adhesion of bone cells, which is beneficial to the close adhesion and growth of the cells, and has the function of leading osteoblasts to differentiate and mature and play its function.
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