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3D printing of titanium and titanium alloy mechanical properties

The mechanical properties of titanium and titanium alloys are closely related to the stability, safety and osteogenesis of bone tissue. The traditional method of 3 d printing process and metal such as casting, forging, powder metallurgy, different production process can influence the organizational structure of the titanium and titanium alloy, thus affecting its mechanical performance. Research reports forging of titanium alloy microstructure structure mainly is bulky, plate, or acicular alpha made part of the beta phase, casting titanium alloy for alpha titanium phase, SLM for alpha titanium alloy martensite mixed alpha, 'the uniformity of EBM titanium alloy needle alpha, had a small amount of beta phase in the grain boundary. SLS makes titanium with young's modulus of 104GPa and is close to forging titanium. The ultimate tensile strength and yield stress of the ti-6al-4v made by SLM is similar to that of the forging, which is better than EBM.

The ductility of EBM is better than forging, SLM and casting, and SLM has poor ductility. The hardness of EBM is higher than SLM and forging titanium alloy, while SLM and forging titanium alloy have similar hardness. Fatigue strength is an important property of titanium alloy repair body. Joshi et al. reported that the fatigue strength of EBM titanium alloy with vertical orientation was higher than that of horizontal oriented titanium alloy. The fatigue strength of the titanium alloy prepared by EBM was obviously improved after the heat and isostatic pressure treatment, and the fatigue strength property similar to that of forging titanium alloy was found.

In general, the mechanical properties of titanium and titanium alloys prepared by 3D printing technology are similar to that of forged titanium alloys, and still higher than bone tissue. Porous or mesh structure design can reduce the mechanical properties of titanium and titanium alloy adjust porous or three dimensional network structure parameters can accurately control the mechanical strength of titanium alloy, so that it can be match with bone tissue. However, powder metallurgy, foaming method, such as fiber sintered porous metal cannot achieve this kind of design of precision production, 3 d printing and metal can be made out according to design precise pore connectivity of complex porous or completely three-dimensional network structure.

The stiffness and compressive strength of the porous titanium alloy prepared by 3D printing decreased with the increase of porosity. The porosity of EBM was 61.5% of Ti6Al4V implant, and its compressive strength was 172MPa, and the elastic modulus was 3.1 GPa and approximate human bone tissue. Through detection of 3 d printing to the mechanical performance of 3 d mesh of titanium alloy, confirmed after the optimization design of 3 d mesh structure unit mesh to the biomechanical performance of titanium alloy can meet the needs of mandibular bone repair. However, the pore structure can also affect the fatigue strength of titanium alloy, and there is research report that SLM's fatigue limit of making porous titanium alloy is lower than that of solid titanium alloy. The fatigue strength of titanium alloy with different porosity is different, but the fatigue strength of porous titanium alloy is similar under low stress.

Restoration application, therefore, should be based on titanium and titanium alloy parts of the mechanical requirements, through the mechanical analysis of the stress distribution is more reasonable to design the restoration, by 3 d printing technology to adjust its mechanical properties, make it match the bone tissue, guarantee the stability of restoration in the body can function, at present, there is few research on the subject.
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